A fracture can be described as a chip, crack or break. Children's bones can break due to a direct or indirect force on the bone, they are common injuries amongst children. There are 4 common fractures that may occur in a child. Each one has its own complications.
Where you see trauma you must suspect broken bones or life threatening injures. i.e a child has been hit by a car
watch the clip below
The most common fracture in a child or Infant is the green stick fracture. Imagine a young tree branch being bent the bark and inner wood would twist,bend but not break in two.
This principle applies to the young bone of a child. In many case it appears swollen, bruised and painful. The child can move it, however there are small hair line fractures along the bone
The open fracture is where the bone snaps and penetrates out through the skin.
There are a numbers of problems with the open fracture:
The closed fracture is another common fracture among children, the collar bone is a bone that tends to break. one reason for this it that when a child falls they place their hands in front of them, a shock wave is sent up the arms and the collar bone snaps under the pressure.
The ribs that break may puncture the lungs, this is a complicated fracture. All spinal fractures are complicated due to the possibility of nerve damage.
The first thing you need to consider is that this is children and babies we are working with, some young children may not be able to express their pain.
DO NOT PICK THE CHILD UP
The reason is that you could inflict more pain and injuries on the child. If the child comes to you with a broken wrist, then Immobilise the arm, place in a sling for comfort and take them to the hospital.
Should the child's wrist have a open fracture with lots of blood and sever pain:
Hold a dressings on each side to control blood loss. Do not move the leg. Prevent movement and ensure emergency services are informed.
This subject is a practical subject
and is taught at our Paediatric
first aid workshop.
A dislocation of the joint occurs when there is a abnormal separation in the joint between two bones. The dislocation often occurs in a child or infant in a sudden impact of the joint or a fall.
Further complications and damage to nerves, ligaments,tendons and muscles. One common form of dislocation is a child is the shoulder joints due to swing the child/infant by the arms causing jerking of the joint.
The treatment for a dislocation should be similar
to that of a broken bone:
Sprains and strains are injuries to the muscles and tendons also known as a soft tissue injury. Children tend to have these injuries sports related activities they can be painful, however if treated quickly and effectively the child will recover quickly.
Recognition of Sprain or Strain
Sprains and strains are treated in the same manner use the following treatment:
After a few days the area will be stiff and a bit sore.
If you in doubt and the child is young
take them to hospital to confirm its not a green stick fracture.